Impact of superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase activity as markers of oxidative stress and their role in inflammation with osteoarthritis patients.
Osteoarthritis afflicts millions of individuals across the world resulting in impaired quality of life and increased health costs. It is an important issue for both the individual and society. Osteoarthritis is a slowly progressive and inflammatory disorder of synovial joints. It is a clinical syndrome in which low-grade inflammation results in pain in the joints, caused by abnormal wearing of the cartilage that covers and acts as a cushion inside joints and destruction or decrease of synovial fluid that lubricates those joints.
The term „Oxidative stress‟ is a physiological condition or to the situation of a serious imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and antioxidant defense. Excessive ROS accumulation will lead to cellular injury. Oxygen-derived free radicals are generated during oxidative metabolism and energy production in the body and are involved in regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, activation of receptors, oxidative damage to cell components, as well as in aging and age-related degenerative diseases.
The disbalance between free radical burden and cellular scavenging mechanisms is a relevant part of OA pathogenesis. Oxidative stress is likely not only to promote cartilage destruction but also to be involved in inflammative transformation, promoting the transition from clinically silent cartilage destruction to apparent OA. Objective: To determine the level of a blood marker of cellular oxidative stress (SOD, GR) with osteoarthritis patients by using antioxidant enzymes systems, as well as to determine the significant level (p-value) of SOD and GR activity of controls and osteoarthritis patients(combined, >45 and<45 age). Methods: The present study carried out 20 c0ntrols, and 40 patients, has been suffering from osteoarthritis (inflammatory joint disease). The study protocol, consent form, and all recruitment materials were approved by the Ethical Board.
Patient blood samples were carried out from OPTM research institution. SOD activity assay/ the inhibition rate (%) was determined using a colorimetric method or by abcam® (ab65354) superoxide dismutase activity assay kit at 450nm. GR activity assay was determined using a colorimetric method or by abcam® (ab83461) Glutathione reductase activity assay kit at 405 nm. Results: It was observed that SOD activity of osteoarthritis patients in combined group showed a significant increase (p<0.001) as compared to controls, and in two separate age groups(age<45 years and age>45 years) showed a significant increase (p<0.001; p<0.001) as compared to controls, besides it was studied that GR activity of osteoarthritis patients in combined group showed a significant increase (p<0.001) as compared to controls, and in two separate age groups(age<45 years and age>45 years) showed a significant increase (p<0.001; p<0.001) as compared to controls. Conclusion: As, this study concerning the significant increase then it indicate that this result may be as a disruption of the homeostatic balance between the entire antioxidant and pro-antioxidant causing an increase in oxidative burden, one of the many etiological causes of chronic inflammation.
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By- Apurba Ganguly
OPTM Health Care & Research