Osteoarthritis (OA) is not a simply process of wear and tear, but an abnormal remodeling of joint tissues driven by a host of inflammatory mediators, including disorders of specific nerves within the affected joint. The common risk factor of OA includes age, sex, prior joint injury, obesity, genetic predisposition and mechanical factor, including malalignment and abnormal joint shape. This paper reports for the first time that normal flexion and extension of knee joints on supine, prone and standing positions in osteoarthritis by topical phytotherapeutic treatment can be achieved, with sustenance, irrespective of age and sex.
The knee is a hinge joint formed by the meeting of the femur and the tibia. The two main actions are Flexion and Extension with the ability to slightly rotate. The knee joint is cushioned by articular cartilage that covers the end of the tibia and femur. The lateral and medial minisci are pads of fibrocartilage that further cushion the joints. Most of the muscles that move these joints located in the thighs with the exception of the gastrocnemius and popliteus. The popliteus helps unlock the knee when it is fully extended and bearing weight. The patella is the part of joint and helps to increase the mechanical advantage of the quadriceps tendon. The muscles responsible for knee flexion are biceps femoris, originated from tuberosity of the ischium, linea aspera and femur inserting to the head of the fibula and nerve root is tibial nerve for long head and common peroneal nerve for short head, semimembranosus, originated from ischial tuberosity inserting to medial surface of tibia and nerve root is sciatic nerve (tibial, L5S1,S2).
The muscles responsible for knee extension are vastus medialis originated from the medial side of the femur, vastus lateralis originated from greater trochanter, intertrochanteric line, and linea aspera offemur, vastus intermedius originated from Antero /lateral femur and rectus femoris, originated from anterior inferior iliac spine and the exterior surface of the bony ridge which forms the iliac portion of the acetabulum and inserting all muscles to patella via the quadriceps tendon and tibial tuberosity via the patellar ligament and the nerve roots of all the muscles are femoral nerve [1,3] From this institution it has earlier been reported that in osteoarthritis with topical phytotherapeutic application, complete symmetry of both knees can be achieved . In this presentation for the first time, it is reported that topical application of phytochemicals can also achieve, with sustenance, normal flexion and extension (on supine, prone and standing positions) of knees in osteoarthritis in patients.
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